Theory (now proven-- see last paragraph): James Mackerwithey was one of the Scottish prisoners sent to the colonies at the close of the civil war in England, following defeat of the Socttish armies at Dunbar and Worcester.

As the civil war in England drew to a close, Scotland proclaimed Prince Charles as their King and Cromwell travelled north to crush this new threat to his power. The scottish regiments were comprised of clansmen of the Highland chieftains and they formed an army that was valient, but undisciplined. They fought under the at and Dunbar and Worcester resulted in the defeat and capure of thousands of Covenanters (Scottish Presbyterians) who could not be returned to their homeland, where they would undoubtedly cause more trouble. On the march to England, where they were to be imprisoned and some transported to the colonies, thousands died. The first ship of deportees to arrive in New England was the "Unity" ordered to sail 11 Nov. 1650 with 150 prisoners, captured at the Battle of Dunbar. The battle at Worcester was one of the final battles of the civil wars in England and Cromwell described it as a "crowning mercy of the Lord." Of the prisoners captured there, some 300 were sent to New England in the "John and Sarah". The ship was ordered to depart on Nov. 11, 1651, probably left in early December and arrived in New England sometime in early 1652. Prisoners on this second ship, the "John and Sarah" were to be deliverd to Thomas Kemble of Boston, who would place the prisoners in indentured positions to pay for their voyage. A list of prisoners transported on this voyage was recorded in Suffolk Massachusetts Deeds vol. 1 pp. 5-6, and reprinted, without comment, in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register vol. 1 (1847) pp. 377-379. This list was reprinted in alphabetical order, along with a paper by Colonel Charles E. Banks, read before the Massachusetts Historical Soceety in TheEssex Genealogist vol. 6 #1 (Feb. 1986) pp. 9-15. The paper read by Charles Banks gives a fairly lengthy historical background to the shipment and disposition of these transplanted Scots. For online versions of this passenger list, see:

Subject: Ship Passenger List of The "John & Sara" out of London 1651 and bound for New England with Scottish Prisoners. (this alphabetizes the list and adds spelling variations)

Scotch Prisoners sent to Massachusetts in 1652 (this presents the names in order as given)

The John and Sarah 1651-1652 (also presents the names in order as given)

Jeam Macarory first appears in Dedham records of the 11th day of the 12th month, 1660 when he was taxed 11 shillings. His was one of several Scottish names that began appearing on the tax lists, the first appearing on a list of the 6th day of the 10th month, 1659. Most indentures lasted an average of seven years; if these Scotsmen had been indentured following their arrival in 1652, they would be emerging from the indentureship by the turn of the decade. Some of the names of the Scots who suddenly appear in the Dedham lists match those on the passenger lists, cited above. Neither the name of James Macarory, as it first appeared in the record, nor Mackewithey as it later appeared is on that list. There are 4 names on the list that are completely unreadable. Of the remaining names, the spelling of names is often phonetic, at best, but the only name that seems a possible entry is that of a Rory Machy, which is a phonetic tranposition of Macarory. An Alestre Macrore appears on the list, but so also does a Hugh Mackey, a Hill Mackie and a Sander Mackey, evidence that there was a Macky surname. And there is a Rory Hamilton, so the name Rory is not unique as a given name.

Evidence that James Mackarory/Mackerwithey was indeed one of the prisoners on this ship comes to us by way of a letter written by his great great grandson. In the NEHGS Library is a Kimball family newsletter. I looked at it because Bethia Mackerwethe (James2 James1)married a Joseph Kimball. In the Sept. 1898 newsletter (p.153) is a published letter written in January, 1839 by Elder Roswell Kimball, who is a grandson of Joseph and Bethia. He notes that Joseph his father, i.e. the son of Joseph & Bethia, died in 1822, aged nearly 91. He continues "My father's mother was descended from a Scottish Highlander of the name of 'Maceraithy' who fought against Cromwell at the battles of Dunbar and Worcester in the sixteenth (sic) century, and two of her connections fell at the fatal battle of Culloden, fighting in the ranks of the Pretender Prince Charles."